# 0.9¶

## Changes to the GCC Python Plugin¶

The plugin now works with GCC 4.7 prereleases (ticket #21).

The plugin is now integrated with GCC’s garbage collector: Python wrapper objects keep their underlying GCC objects alive when GCC’s garbage collector runs, preventing segfaults that could occur if the underlying objects were swept away from under us (ticket #1).

It’s now possible to attach Python callbacks to more GCC events: gcc.PLUGIN_FINISH, gcc.PLUGIN_GGC_START, gcc.PLUGIN_GGC_MARKING, gcc.PLUGIN_GGC_FINISH, gcc.PLUGIN_FINISH_DECL (gcc 4.7)

gcc.ArrayType has gained a “range” attribute, allowing scripts to detect out-of-bounds conditions in array-handling.

A number of memory leaks were fixed: these were found by running the plugin on itself.

Various documentation improvements (ticket #6, ticket #31).

## Improvements to gcc-with-cpychecker¶

The gcc-with-cpychecker tool has received some deep internal improvements in this release.

The logic for analyzing the outcome of comparisons has been rewritten for this release, fixing some significant bugs that could lead to the analyzer incorrectly deciding whether or not a block of code was reachable.

Similarly, the logic for detecting loops has been rewritten, elimininating a bug in which the checker would prematurely stop analyzing loops with complicated termination conditions, and not analyze the body of the loop.

Doing so extended the reach of the checker, and enabled it to find the memory leaks referred to above.

In addition, the checker now emits more detailed information on the ranges of possible values it’s considering when a comparison occurs against an unknown value:

input.c: In function 'test':
input.c:41:5: warning: comparison against uninitialized data (item) at    input.c:41 [enabled by default]
input.c:34:12: note: when PyList_New() succeeds at:     result = PyList_New(len);
input.c:35:8: note: taking False path at:     if (!result) {
input.c:39:12: note: reaching:     for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
input.c:39:5: note: when considering range: 1 <= value <= 0x7fffffff at:     for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
input.c:39:5: note: taking True path at:     for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
input.c:41:5: note: reaching:        if (!item) {


The checker should do a better job of identifying PyObject subclasses. Previously it was treating any struct beginning with “ob_refcnt” and “ob_type” as a Python object (with some tweaks for python 3 and debug builds). It now also covers structs that begin with a field that’s a PyObject (or subclass), since these are likely to also be PyObject subclasses.

### Usage of deallocated memory¶

Previously, the checker would warn about paths through a function that could return a pointer to deallocated memory, or which tried to read through such a pointer. With this release, the checker will now also warn about paths through a function in which a pointer to deallocated memory is passed to a function.

For example, given this buggy code:

extern void some_function(PyObject *);

void
test(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
/* Create an object: */
PyObject *tmp = PyLong_FromLong(0x1000);

if (!tmp) {
return;
}

/*
Now decref the object.  Depending on what other references are owned
on the object, it can reach a refcount of zero, and thus be deallocated:
*/
Py_DECREF(tmp);

/* BUG: the object being returned may have been deallocated */
some_function(tmp);
}


the checker will emit this warning:

input.c: In function 'test':
input.c:45: warning: passing pointer to deallocated memory as argument 1 of function at input.c:45: memory deallocated at input.c:42 [enabled by default]
input.c:32: note: when PyLong_FromLong() succeeds at:     PyObject *tmp = PyLong_FromLong(0x1000);
input.c:34: note: taking False path at:     if (!tmp) {
input.c:42: note: reaching:     Py_DECREF(tmp);
input.c:42: note: when taking False path at:     Py_DECREF(tmp);
input.c:42: note: reaching:     Py_DECREF(tmp);
input.c:42: note: calling tp_dealloc on PyLongObject allocated at input.c:32 at:     Py_DECREF(tmp);
input.c:45: note: reaching:     foo(tmp);
input.c:30: note: graphical error report for function 'passing_dead_object_to_function' written out to 'input.c.test-refcount-errors.html'


### Coverage of the CPython API¶

This release adds heuristics for the behavior of the following CPython API entrypoints:

• PyString_Concat
• PyString_ConcatAndDel

along with various other bugfixes and documentation improvements.